Renewable Energy Technologies
The different applications (systems/devices/projects) of renewable energy technologies that can help in providing energy access, creating employment opportunities and contribute towards climate change mitigation are highlighted here. The applications considered here are commercially available, successfully implemented elsewhere and useful for both rural and urban areas. A brief description of these technologies followed by the availability in varying capacity, indicative cost and financial assistance are presented. The information mentioned here presents a general scenario. Availability, cost and financial assistance may vary according to the geographical location.
A Solar Lantern is made of three main components – the Solar Photovoltaic (SPV) panel, the storage battery, lamp and sometime a mobile charging point. The operation is very simple. The solar energy is converted to electrical energy by the SPV panel, and stored in a sealed maintenance-free battery for later use during the night hours. A single charge can operate the lamp for about 4-5 hours.
Solar Home Lighting Systems
A simple LED based solar home lighting system consists of 2-4 luminaires, a solar module, a battery, a DC fan and a mobile charging point. The number of luminaires and other electrical equipment would vary with the system’s module capacity and model. For example, a model of 37Wp solar module will consists of 3-4 luminaire with 12V-40Ah battery.
Solar PV rooftop systems for energy savings/power backup
Solar generators or solar power packs are solar photovoltaic systems, which can be used to charge batteries of home inverters for supplementing grid electricity. They consist of a solar panel module and a charge control system. In the event of a power failure or during load shedding time, the system acts as a backup for providing electricity.
Solar water pumping systems for irrigation and village water supply
A solar water pumping system consists of a PV array varying from 200Wp to 10kWp, motor pump set (surface or submersible), MPPT and Inverter for AC motors, electronic protections and interconnect cables. A solar water pumping system for drinking purposes consists of a water storage tank.
Solar powered water system for schools
A solar powered water system provides safe and reliable drinking water, running water in the toilets and hot water for cooking to reduce the fuel cost. The solar powered water system in the school consists of three different facilities: Solar water pumping system, Reverse Osmosis (RO) Water Purifier System & Solar Water Heating System
Billboards or advertising hoardings are a common sight in many cities. These billboards are illuminated throughout the night by high intensity lamps. Most billboards have 4 to 12 light fixtures and consume a huge amount of energy. A solar billboard uses solar photovoltaic panels to convert sunlight into electricity required to illuminate the hoarding.
Solar streetlights use solar photovoltaic panels to convert sunlight to electrical energy that is stored in a battery box before being used at night to illuminate the streets. A basic solar powered streetlight consists of a SPV module, battery, lamp with a charge controller and lamppost. Usually, these systems are also fitted with automatic dusk to dawn timers for saving energy during daytime.
Solar system for traffic control and road safety
LED based SPV traffic lights and blinkers have advantages in terms of reliability and longer life in comparison with traditional devices. Solar blinkers could be useful at blind intersections, ahead of road humps, sharp bends/ U-turns, pedestrian crossings, etc. Solar road studs are unique, innovative and state-of-the art road safety devices for night time drivers.
Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV)
Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) is the integration of photovoltaic (PV) into the building envelope, and the panels can be made one of the components of the building. The PV modules serve the dual function of building skin replacing conventional building envelope materials, and power generator.
Solar PV – Wind hybrid systems
Small wind energy systems viz. water pumping windmills, aero generators and wind-solar hybrid systems are useful for meeting water pumping and small power requirements in rural/ semi-urban/ urban windy areas of the country.
Grid connected rooftop solar PV systems
A rooftop SPV system could be with or without grid interaction. In grid interaction system, the DC power generated from SPV panels is converted to AC power using power conditioning unit and is fed to the grid at 220V, 440V or 11KV line depending on the system installed at institution/ commercial establishment or residential complex.
Large solar PV projects in Industrial/warehouse roof and stadiums
Grid connected Megawatt (MW) scale PV power plants could be installed over large industrial/ commercial rooftops or stadiums in urban areas under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission program which has set a goal of installing 100GW solar power by 2022. Net metering, generation based incentives; as per the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) guidelines will be available under the scheme.
Solar Water Heating systems
A solar water heater consists of a collector to collect solar energy and an insulated storage tank to store hot water. The solar energy incident on the absorber panel coated with selected coating transfers the heat to the riser pipes underneath the absorber panel. The water passing through the risers gets heated up and is delivered to the storage tank.
Small solar cooker
Box-type solar cooker consists of an insulated box, metallic cooking tray sat inside the box, double glass lid on the cooking tray, and a reflecting mirror fitted on the underside of the lid of the box. Dish solar cooker is a parabolic dish created by the revolution of parabola. Typically, the dish is made up of anodized aluminum sheet having an aperture diameter of 1.4 meter and focal length 0.28 meter.
Solar concentrator for steam cooking and process heat applications
This type of a cooker design uses a large parabolic dish. The parabolic dish is a reflector which is placed outside the kitchen and is equipped with automatic tracking system; it reflects the sunrays into the kitchen through an opening in its North wall. A secondary reflector further concentrates the rays on to the bottom of the cooking pot painted black.
Solar drying / air heating systems
A type of solar thermal system where air is heated in a collector and transferred directly either to the interior space or to a storage medium, such as, a rock bin. Solar air heaters use solar panels to warm air which is then conveyed into a room. The basic components of a solar air heater include solar collector panels, a duct system and diffusers.
Solar Cooling system
A solar refrigerator operates with a vapour compression system and could be powered by both solar and conventional electricity. They are powered by solar photovoltaic arrays (solar panels) and DC or AC/DC power as a backup energy source. These refrigerators are made from environment-friendly (non-CFC) materials, and are designed to last a lifetime.
Municipal solid waste to energy: Thermochemical process
The most significant Waste to Energy (WTE) technologies are based on biological or thermal processes. Conversion of WTE has recently emerged as a viable alternative to manage waste in a sustainable manner. WTE reduces the volume of waste going to landfills by 60 to 90%, saving land, ensuring safe waste disposal and reducing greenhouse gas emissions from residual waste finally going into landfills.
Municipal solid waste to energy – bio methanation process
Bio-methanation is a biological process where biogas containing methane is extracted from decomposition and combustion of organic wastes. Electricity may be generated from the biogas. Bio-methanation is the generation of biogas through anaerobic digestion of the solid-liquid organic biomass waste by employing methanogenic microflora. The end products of bio-methanation are a stabilized slurry and a flammable gas – biogas.
Sewage management systems for energy generation
Treating wastewater is vital in safeguarding the health of communities. This treatment process can also bring in economic benefits. Generating cash can ensure the long term sustainability of wastewater treatment projects. For large-scale municipal projects, generating biogas and the ability to sell carbon credits are important sources of income that can help recover the costs of construction.
Biomass power and co-generation in industries
Biomass materials which have been successfully used for power generation include bagasse, rice husk, straw, cotton stalk, coconut shells, soya husk, de-oiled cakes, coffee waste, jute wastes, groundnut shells, saw dust etc. The technologies being promoted include combustion/ cogeneration and gasification either for power in captive or grid connected modes or for heat applications.
Biomass gasifier based crematoriums
The gasifier-based crematorium consists of a ‘Cremation Bed’ that is fixed on a moving trolley. The burner is fitted to one end of the fixed dome, which is provided with a refractory lining inside it. The length of the flame from the burner is about five feet long and completely engulfs the full length of the body.
Biogas is a clean and low cost fuel. It is highly inflammable and contains 55% to
60% methane gas. It also contains 30% to 35% carbon dioxide and traces of Nitrogen, Hydrogen and water. The process of generation is by anaerobic digestion (in the absence of air).
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